PVGISPhotovoltaic Geographical Information System

An online system developed by the European Joint Research Council to report levels of radiation levels across Europe and Africa.

– PVGIS Classic the data was gathered from pyranometers across Europe during the period 1981 to 1990 creating an average radiation at a given area.
– PVGIS SAF this data was gathered via satellite images between June 2006 and May 2010

SAF give generally better results and it is believed this is because the Classic was based on ground stations and there is a factor of distortion due to buildings and trees etc. Where SAF was completed with satellites and a purer data set. There is also a view that due to the difference in collation of the data by some 16 years there is an increase due to Global Warming.

To view PVGIS visit this site http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/apps4/pvest.php

P90 & P50 

P90 is all about quantifying the uncertainty of annual energy yield predictions.
P90 is the energy predicts that a Solar Farm is 90% likely to produce over an average year.

P50, is the average annual energy yield predicted for your site – the annual energy output you are most likely to achieve 5 out of 10 years.

Investor decisions are commonly based on P90.

PPA- Power Purchase Agreement

This is required to claim the ROC’s or FIT and is an agreement from a power provider to purchase the power generated over a fixed period of time at an agreed price thus giving stability to the income flow.

ROC’S – How do they work?

For every MWh you sell on the ROC scheme, you get:A ROC subsidy A unit price for any power you export to the national gridEmbedded benefits – because your energy goes to local consumers, you get more for bringing down transmission costs.

On the ROC scheme, you can either fix the unit price on top of the subsidy, or get flexible prices based on the fluctuating energy market.

Current rating for Solar is x 2

LEC – Levy Exempt Certificates

Levy Exemption Certificates (LECs) are evidence of Climate Change Levy- exempt electricity supply generated from qualifying renewable sources. Accredited generators may need to provide monthly meter information to Ofgem (possibly electronically by an outside agent). Generators need to provide details of the supplier(s) contracted to purchase the generator’s output. Suppliers need to provide Ofgem with a declaration that none of the qualifying renewable electricity has been exported outside the UK. Ofgem will also require confirmation of the sale from the supplier. This will enable Ofgem to be satisfied that the qualifying renewable generation has been supplied to customers in the UK. Ofgem will then electronically issue LECs to the generator for the corresponding amount of electricity generated. The LECs will be traded from the generator to the contracted supplier. LECs cannot be separated from the electricity and therefore cannot be traded separately. LECs will be redeemed by suppliers to Customs and Excise to demonstrate the amount of non-climate change leviable electricity that had been supplied to non-domestic customers in a given period.

Embedded Benefits

These are benefits for exporting electricity within the area maintained by the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO). They include the avoidance of Distribution and Transmissions losses and are built into the export rate(£/MWh) offered to the generator.

Brown Energy

This is energy generated via polluting sources

Green Energy 

This is energy generated via renewable or non polluting sources

Recourse Funds  

Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is with recourse, the lender has a the ability has the ability to fall back to the guarantor of the loan if the borrower fails to pay. For example, Bank A has a loan with Company X. Bank A sells the loan to Bank B with recourse. If Company X defaults, Bank B can demand Bank A fulfil the loan obligation.

Non-Recourse Finance

A loan secured by the revenue of the project the loan intends to fund, and nothing else. That is, non-recourse finance does not allow the bank or other lending institution access to the borrower’s other assets in the event of default.
London Interbank Offer Rate – LIBOR

The interest rate participating Banks offer to other banks for loans on the London market. LIBOR is the most widely used benchmark for short term interest rates in the world, primarily because most of the world’s largest banks borrow money on the London market.

MPAN number – Meter Point Administration Number

An MPAN (Meter Point Administration Number) is a unique number to the property. It is found on the electricity bill issued by your supplier. This is sometimes called a Supply Number but it should not be confused by your customer reference number.

Pass through 

This is the fee taken to supply a service such as managing the ROC’s etc.

EPC – Engineer, Procurement and Construction

The EPC contractor (EPCC) agrees to deliver the keys of a commissioned plant to the owner for an agreed amount, just as a builder hands the keys of a flat to the purchaser. EPC is gaining importance worldwide. It requires good understanding by the EPCC to return a profit. An owner decides for an EPC contract for reasons that include:

Reduced stress for owner

– Single point of contact for owner simplifies communications

– Ready availability of post-commissioning services

– Ensures quality and reduces practical issues faced in other ways

-Owner protected against changing prices for materials, labour, etc.

– Cost is known at the start of the project

– Besides the plant sitting, in an EPC contract the owner defines:

– Scope and the specifications of the plant

– Quality

– Project duration

– Cost

– The cost (the price to be paid to the EPCC) is negotiated and finalised and paid in mutually agreed installments

KW price 

This is a method used by the industry to average out pricing bringing everything to a set unit of output


For any other explanation feel free to call David Dean 07771 786227